Creative Commons

What is Creative Commons?

Creative Commons (CC) is an organisation that promotes the use of the Creative Commons copyright licensing, a license that allows the use and transformation of materials that is released under it. The degree of which it can be used is determined by the type of Creative Commons, ranging from complete transformation to limited use. This license creates a massive library of pre-existing work that can be used and adapted upon without fear of copyright issues. It is intended for creative and educational use, providing students with the opportunity to use professional level images and audio.

How does one obtain a Creative Commons license?

You can obtain a license for your work by visiting the Creative Commons website. Here you will be able to apply the license to your work by entering in the HTML to your website or platform. You can also download the Creative Commons Add-in for microsoft and add the license to Word, Excel or PowerPoint documents. 

What are the different types of licenses offered?

There are 6 types of CC copyright licences 

  • Attribution (CC BY)

This is the broadest license, allowing people to change, build upon and completely rework your work, even for commercial purposes, as long as it is credited to the original creator. This is favoured for those that want to provide completely adaptable work for free.

  • Attribution ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)

Similar to the previous license, this one allows for the complete reworking of material for even commercial purposes. However, this license requires the new user to incorporate the material into a similar project, for example, since Wikipedia holds this license, one could take an excerpt from that site and use it on their own education site, as long as they credited the original source.

  • Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND)

This license allows users to redistribute another work, even commercially, but are unable modify it in any way, and must credit the original creator.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, adapt, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms. Similar to the “Attribution” license, the content is free to be modified and adapted, however, it must not be for commercial use and must credit the original author.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)

The use of this license allows users to change your work by adapting, adding or modifying it non-commercially. The new creator must licence their work under the same terms of the original and give credit for the original content.

  • Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)

This licence gives allowance to people to be able to download your created material and share it with other people, although they must give you credit. This makes it the most restrictive licence. In addition they are not allowed to change your work in any way or use your work commercially. 

Where can content makers find Creative Commons material?

Content makers can search and find content via the search.creativecommons.org, when on that page the content maker can simply type in keywords or license and material types allowing them to reuse creative and academic work. 

Other sites are helpful for when the search.creativecommons.org is difficult for the user to find what they are looking for. Other sites with creative commons content are listed in the table below:

References:

Creative Commons, What We do, viewed 6th April, <https://creativecommons.org/about/

Creative Commons Australia, Finding Creative Commons Licensed Materials, viewed 6th April, <https://creativecommons.org.au/learn/fact-sheets/find-cc-materials/>

Queen’s University Library 2018, How to Apply Creative Commons License to Your Work, viewed 6th April, <https://guides.library.queensu.ca/c.php?g=704790&p=5014948>

Authors: Sophie Brown, Tori Saros, James Burns and Emily Rattenbury

Representation and Interpretation

Semiotics. What does it mean? According to World encyclopedia (2004), semiotics is the study of signs and symbols, both visual and linguistic, and their function in communication. Much of our understanding of the way we interpret signs is due to Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles Peirce, a pair widely known for being the unofficial fathers of semiotics. So how do we read these signs? Let’s take a look at the following advertisement:

print #advertisement 25 Eye Catching and Creative Print Ads Examples

Looking at this relatively simple graphic I can see a symbol, or rather two symbols meshed together; a candle and the earth. This is our sign as it is conveys meaning. The way we read signs is broken into two parts. First the signifier, which is the literal image we see, in this case the image of the burning earth. The second is the signified which is the mental way we perceive the image. This is divided into two parts. The literal meaning of this image, also known as the denotation, is that the world is burning. This interpretation paired with the simple statement “there is no planet B. Act Now” reinforces the alarming issue the poster conveys. The connotation of the signifier is the associated meaning, the way in which we interpret the image. This is different for every individual based on their ideology; their environment, culture and history. For example, some might see this poster and interpret the candle as representing that the world is on fire or getting hotter. They might relate it to a previous bushfire experience or research they have done on global warming. I on the other hand associate the image as a warning to us that the damage done to the earth is becoming irreversible. I see candles as something that burn relatively fast and that cannot be ‘unburned’. It is important to note that most connotations of the signifier are likely to be negative as that was the illustrators primary objective.

The way we interpret images such as the one above can relate back to some of the most popular communication models. One such model is Lasswell’s Communication model. This model states that the communicator presents a message through a channel to the receiver which results in an effect. If we apply this back to the image, we can see the communicator or the organisation behind the advertisement, presented their message through the symbol of the melting earth to us, the receivers. The only problem with this model in relation to semiotics is that it is linear and doesn’t take connotation into account. That is, the signifier is going to have a different effect on all of us because of our ideology. Despite this, the model still relates as it states that there will be an effect, which there is. It is expected that the message that most would take from this is that the planet earth is suffering, and we are being called to do something about it. However, the full predictability of this effect is not likely to be conceivable.

So how do you read this advertisement?

Soph.

References:

Chandler, D 2019, Semiotics for beginners, viewed 3rd April, < https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~chazelle/courses/BIB/semio2.htm>

Fakhoury, K 2009, Global warming project, viewed 1st April, < https://karimfakhoury.com/>

Mass Communication Theory 2015, Lasswell’s Model Of Communcation, viewed 4th April, < https://rahmanjmc.wordpress.com/2015/02/09/lasswells-model-of-communcation/

‘semiotics’ 2004, in World encyclopedia, Philips.

Audiences

In our week two BCM110 lecture and tutorial, we focused on media audiences and how they have developed within the last century. We also touched on what it means to be an active audience. Discussing this topic reminded me of my favourite memory of when I was part of an audience.

In Launceston, the town I grew up in, there was a park that hosted an annual event, Symphony Under the Stars. Thousands of people would gather in the warm summer air to watch an orchestra perform as the sun set. I can remember that being part of that audience was a unique and exhilarating experience. Most people would spread picnic blankets on the grass in front of the stage, some arriving hours before the commence of the show to secure a good spot. Everyone would bring dinner and it almost envisioned a huge city-wide picnic. There were so many people that when it got dark, I would sometimes get lost because I couldn’t find my family in the sea of people. Throughout the evening, most stayed sitting but others walked around the vast lawn, enjoying the music from afar. When the sun finally set and the chilly air crept in, the ancient oak trees and starry sky cast a sense of romance over the night. Many took this as an opportunity to get out their blankets and stargaze together. People were expected to have this relaxed demeanour, however, among the audience there was also an unspoken rule that all must hold a high level of respect for the performance and for each other. At the conclusion of the performance, the can-can would always be played and you could see people everywhere pop up onto their feet and dance along. When it came time to leave, despite there being five thousand people, everyone was polite and kind, as if at peace. It was like the enticing genre of music influenced the way people behaved.

Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra's Symphony under the Stars moving to ...

This event has caused me to realise that orchestras are truly one of the most beautiful and alluring genres of music. They have the unique ability to stir your emotions without a single word. It is not the typical category of music found in the playlists of young people, however my favourite thing about this event was that the people in the audience were diverse in age. According to Pitts (2005, p. 268), for most people, the other attendees have an impact on the level of enjoyment they are likely to experience. Having a diverse and accepting fellow audience, created a sense of community and belonging within the crowed. I think the accepting and active audience had a great influence on how I perceived the night and why I kept going year after year. It really opened my eyes to the splendour of such music and its unique power to bring people together. I hold a special place in my heart for this event as I don’t think there are many such experiences today.

Soph.

References

Pitts, S 2005, ‘What Makes an Audience? Investigating the Roles and Experiences of Listeners at a Chamber Music Festival’, Music & Letters, vol. 86, no. 2, p. 268.